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Classics and General Humanities

Library and Internet Resources for Classics and General Humanities

Citing Sources in Classics

Classicists tend to use the Chicago Manual of Style rules for citation, although publishers often have their own rules or variations on the standard. Turabian, a derivative of Chicago designed for undergraduate research, is also popular.

Citing Ancient Sources

Classics uses a specialized method of citation. The proper format for citing classical texts:

[Author], [Title] [Book/Section.(Poem, if applicable)].[Line #s cited]


Homer, Iliad 18.141–143.
Sophocles, Antigone 904–922.

Cicero, First Catilinarian 14.2.

Abbreviations: Most classical authors and texts do have standard abbreviations that you may want to employ. These can be found in the Oxford Classical Dictionary.

Chicago & Turabian Guides

The Chicago Manual of Style and Turabian's Student's Guide to Writing College Papers
are available in the Sprague Library
.  (see below)

  • The Bibliography entries for the Chicago and Turabian styles are the SAME for both formats.
  • The differences between the styles are mainly seen in how notes are numbered.
  • In Turabian style, use superscript for endnote and footnote numbers in the text and at the beginning of each note.
  • In Chicago style, the note number in the text is in parentheses (1) and is followed by a period and space in the note.
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