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Citing Sources

Attributing Sources in Footnotes, In-Text Citations & Bibliographies

APA Guides

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
is available in the Sprague Library
.  (see below)

APA Examples

Articles in Scholarly Journals or Magazines

Reference List Format:

Author’s last name, Author's initials.  (Publication year).  Title of the article.  Title of periodical, volume(issue number), pages cited.

        [Add issue number only if each issue begins on page 1.]


Vardi, L.  (1996).  Imagining the harvest in early modern Europe.  
The American Historical Review, 101(5), 1357-1397.


Article with Two or Three Authors

Reference List Format:

Author’s lastname, Initials., & Author’s lastname, Initials.  (Publication year).  Title of the article.  Name of Journal, volume(issue), pages cited xx-xx.


Vincenti, W., & Sielaff, M.  (1997).  Civil War resources on the Internet:  an annotated bibliography.  Reference Services Review, 25(1), 39-45.


Newspaper Article

Reference List Format:

Author’s Last name, Initials.  (Publication year, month day).  Title of article.  
Name of Newspaper, volume, pp. xx - xx.


Schwartz, J.  (1993, September 30).  Obesity affects economic, social status.  
The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.

Note 1: If the periodical is published once every two weeks or more frequently, give the publication date as (year, month day); if it is published monthly or less frequently, give the month (or other designation) and year.
Note 2: If an article runs on successive pages from beginning to end, give the beginning and ending pages; if not, give all of the page numbers and separate the numbers with a comma .

Reprints or Excerpts of Articles
(like in the Gale Literary Criticism Collections [Short Story Criticism, CLC, TCLC, etc.,])

Reference List Format:

Author’s Last Name, Initials.  (Publication Date of Secondary Source).  Title of article or chapter.  In Editor’s Initials. Editor’s Last Name (Ed.), Title of secondary source (Volume and page numbers).  Publication information.  (Reprinted from Original Source Title, volume # and pages)


Spilka, M.  (1982).  Of George and Lennie and Curley’s wife: Sweet violence in Steinbeck’s Eden.  In D. Smith (Ed.), Contemporary Literary Criticism (Vol. 104, pp. 430-44).  Detroit: Gale.  (Reprinted from Modern Fiction Studies, 65, 43-50)


Reference List Format:

Author’s Last name, Initials.  (Publication year).  Title of book.  
Publisher Location: Publisher name.


Mandler, G. (1997). Human nature explored.
New York:  Oxford University Press.


Chapters or Essays in Books

Reference List Format:

Author A’s Last name, Initials., & Author B's Last name, Initials.  (Publication year).  Title of chapter or entry.  In Editor’s First initial. Last name (Ed.), Title of Book (pp. xx-xx).  Publisher Location:  Publisher name.

        [Note:  Skip editor if there is none.]


House, D. V., & McDonald, M. J.  (1998).  Realist brains and virtual conversations.  In W. Smythe, (Ed.), Toward a Psychology of Persons  (pp. 179-220).  Mahwah, NJ:  L. Erlbaum.

Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry with no Author

Reference List Format:

Title of entry.  (Publication year).  In Editor’s First initial. Last name (Ed.).  Title of work  (xx ed., Vol. xx, pp. xx-xx).  Publisher Location:  Publisher name.

        [Skip editor if there is none.]


Famine.  (2005).  In W. McNeill (Ed.).  Berkshire encyclopedia of world history  (1st ed., Vol. 2, pp. 728- 732).  Great Barrington, MA:  Berkshire Publishing Group.

World Wide Web

Reference List Format

Author Last name, Initials.  (Date of page creation or last revision).  Title of Web Site.  Retrieved from


Green, C. D.  (1997).  Classics in the History of Psychology.  
Retrieved from

ERIC Documents
(Use this for items found within the ERIC database denoted with an ED number.  Journal articles found within ERIC will be marked EJ and should be cited with the normal format for articles.)

Reference List Format:

Author's Last name, Author's initials.  (Publication date).  Title of ERIC Report.  Retrieved from ERIC database.  (EDNumber)


Brewster, C., & Railsback, J.  (2002).  Full-day kindergarten: Exploring an option for extended learning.  Retrieved from ERIC database.  (ED472733)

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APA In-Text Citations

Provide author name followed by a comma, date of publication followed by a comma, and page number if specific section of the work.

Example: (Wegener & Petty, 1994, p. 10)
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