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Citing Sources

Attributing Sources in Footnotes, In-Text Citations & Bibliographies

Chicago & Turabian Guides

The Chicago Manual of Style and Turabian's Student's Guide to Writing College Papers
are available in the Sprague Library
.  (see below)

The Bibliography entries for the Chicago and Turabian styles are the SAME for both formats.

The differences between the styles are mainly seen in how notes are numbered.

In Turabian style, use superscript for endnote and footnote numbers in the text and at the beginning of each note.

In Chicago style, the note number in the text is in parentheses (1) and is followed by a period and space in the note.

Chicago / Turabian Examples

Article from a Scholarly Journal

Reference List Format:

Lastname, Firstname.  “Title of Article,” Name of Journal  Volume,
issue number (publication year):  page numbers.

(Note: When the issue number is given, it follows the volume number. See Example #2 below.)


Templin, Charlotte. “Marietta Holley and Mark Twain: Cultural-Gender
Politics and Literary Reputation,” American Studies  39 (1998):  75-92.

Example #2:

Smith, Johanna M. “Constructing the Nation: Eighteenth-Century Geographies for Children,” Mosaic  34, no. 2 (2001):  133-48.


Article from a Magazine:

Reference List Format:

Lastname, Firstname.  “Title of Article,” Name of Magazine,
Publication date.


Weintraub, Arlene, and Laura Cohen. “A Thousand-Year Plan for
Nuclear Waste,” Business Week, May 6, 2002.


Article from a Newspaper:

Reference List Format:

Lastname, Firstname.  “Title of Article.”  Title of Newspaper  (Place of Publication),
Publication Date.


Jeromack, Paul.  “This Once, a David of the Art World Does Goliath a Favor.”  
New York Times  (New York, NY), July 13, 2002.


Article - Online

Reference List Format:

The basic citation will be exactly as the citation for a scholarly journal, magazine or newspaper above.

To this add the following:
1. Date accessed. (If available)
2. Web address or DOI of the article.


Samway, Patrick.  “Lucas Beauchamp: an Unpublished Story,” Virginia Quarterly Review.  75, no. 3 (1999):  417-419.  Accessed January 15, 2014.

Article, Book Chapter or Essay in an Anthology or Edited Collection:

The basic citation will be exactly as the citation for a scholarly journal, magazine or newspaper.


Holladay, Hillary.  “Narrative Space in Ann Petry’s Country Place.”  In TwentiethCentury Literary Criticism.  edited by Linda Pavlovski and Scott Darga, Vol. 112, 356-62.  Detroit, MI:  Gale, 2002.


Reference List Format:

Lastname, Firstname.  Title of Book.  
City of publication: Publisher, Year Published.

Note:  If there is more than one author, subsequent authors are listed Firstname Lastname.
Note:  Cite eBooks like printed books with the addition of a description at the end of the citation denoting what sort eBook it was: Kindle edition, PDF e-book, Nook eBook, etc.,


Liebler, Naomi.  The Female Tragic Hero in English
Renaissance Drama
.  New York:  Palgrave, 2002.

Example eBook:

Brundage, James.  The Medieval Origins of the Legal Profession: Canonists, Civilians and Courts.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.  Kindle edition.

Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry

Reference List Format:

Author’s name (if given).  “Title of Entry.”  In Title of Whole Work, edited by Editor’s Firstname Lastname.  Edition number, number of volumes in set.  City:  Publisher, Publication year.


“Milk.” def. 2.  Dictionary of American English.  Edited by William S. Craigie and James R. Hulbert.  4 vols.  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press, 1942.

Internet / Websites

Reference List Format:

Lastname, Firstname.  “Title of Web Page.”  Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics.  Publication Date and/or Access Date if available.  Web address.


“African American Sheet Music.”  Brown University Library Center for Digital Scholarship.  Accessed February 11, 2014.

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