Eye Tracking in Second Language Acquisition and Bilingualism provides foundational knowledge and hands-on advice for designing, conducting, and analysing eye-tracking research in applied linguistics. Godfroid's research synthesis and methodological guide introduces the reader to fundamental facts about eye movements, eye-tracking paradigms for language scientists, data analysis, and the practicalities of building a lab. This indispensable book will appeal to undergraduate students learning principles of experimental design, graduate students developing their theoretical and statistical repertoires, experienced scholars looking to expand their own research, and eye-tracking professionals.
Making diverse data in linguistics and the language sciences open, distributed, and accessible: perspectives from language/language acquistiion researchers and technical LOD (linked open data) researchers. This volume examines the challenges inherent in making diverse data in linguistics and the language sciences open, distributed, integrated, and accessible, thus fostering wide data sharing and collaboration. It is unique in integrating the perspectives of language researchers and technical LOD (linked open data) researchers. Reporting on both active research needs in the field of language acquisition and technical advances in the development of data interoperability, the book demonstrates the advantages of an international infrastructure for scholarship in the field of language sciences. With contributions by researchers who produce complex data content and scholars involved in both the technology and the conceptual foundations of LLOD (linguistics linked open data), the book focuses on the area of language acquisition because it involves complex and diverse data sets, cross-linguistic analyses, and urgent collaborative research. The contributors discuss a variety of research methods, resources, and infrastructures. Contributors Isabelle Barri re, Nan Bernstein Ratner, Steven Bird, Maria Blume, Ted Caldwell, Christian Chiarcos, Cristina Dye, Suzanne Flynn, Claire Foley, Nancy Ide, Carissa Kang, D. Terence Langendoen, Barbara Lust, Brian MacWhinney, Jonathan Masci, Steven Moran, Antonio Pareja-Lora, Jim Reidy, Oya Y. Rieger, Gary F. Simons, Thorsten Trippel, Kara Warburton, Sue Ellen Wright, Claus Zinn
Why language ability remains resilient and how it shapes our lives. We acquire our native language, seemingly without effort, in infancy and early childhood. Language is our constant companion throughout our lifetime, even as we age. Indeed, compared with other aspects of cognition, language seems to be fairly resilient through the process of aging. In Changing Minds, Roger Kreuz and Richard Roberts examine how aging affects language--and how language affects aging. Kreuz and Roberts report that what appear to be changes in an older person's language ability are actually produced by declines in such other cognitive processes as memory and perception. Some language abilities, including vocabulary size and writing ability, may even improve with age. And certain language activities--including reading fiction and engaging in conversation--may even help us live fuller and healthier lives. Kreuz and Roberts explain the cognitive processes underlying our language ability, exploring in particular how changes in these processes lead to changes in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. They consider, among other things, the inability to produce a word that's on the tip of your tongue--and suggest that the increasing incidence of this with age may be the result of a surfeit of world knowledge. For example, older people can be better storytellers, and (something to remember at a family reunion) their perceived tendency toward off-topic verbosity may actually reflect communicative goals.
This book introduces research-based pedagogical practices for supporting and enhancing language development and use in school-based immersion and dual language programs in which a second, foreign, heritage, or indigenous language is used as the medium of subject-matter instruction. Using counterbalanced instruction as the volume's pedagogical framework, the authors map out the specific pedagogical skill set and knowledge base that teachers in immersion and dual language classrooms need so their students can engage with content taught through an additional language while continuing to improve their proficiency in that language. To illustrate key concepts and effective practices, the authors draw on classroom-based research and include teacher-created examples of classroom application. The following topics are covered in detail: defining characteristics of immersion and dual language programs and features of well-implemented programs strategies to promote language and content integration in curricular planning as well as classroom instruction and performance assessment an instructional model to counterbalance form-focused and content-based instruction scaffolding strategies that support students' comprehension and production while ensuring continued language development an approach to creating cross-linguistic connections through biliteracy instruction a self-assessment tool for teachers to reflect on their pedagogical growth Also applicable to content and language integrated learning and other forms of content-based language teaching, this comprehensive volume includes graphics to facilitate navigation and provides Resources for Readers and Application Activities at the end of each chapter. The book will be a key resource for preservice and in-service teachers, administrators, and teacher educators.
This book is the first dedicated to linguistic parsing - the processing of natural language according to the rules of a formal grammar - in the Minimalist Program. While Minimalism has been at the forefront of generative grammar for several decades, it often remains inaccessible to computer scientists and others in adjacent fields. This volume makes connections with standard computational architectures, provides efficient implementations of some fundamental minimalist accounts of syntax, explores implementations of recent theoretical proposals, and explores correlations between posited structures and measures of neural activity during human language comprehension. These studies will appeal to graduate students and researchers in formal syntax, computational linguistics, psycholinguistics, and computer science.
Learning English and Chinese is becoming increasingly important to the prospects of young people. This book compares English as a Foreign Language teaching in Taiwan with Chinese as a Foreign Language education in England in order to highlight how classroom activities are embedded within multiple settings, including ethnic or other social group cultures, family and community resources and school visions or goals. The book illustrates how in Taiwan different ethnic groups recognise, access and value English language learning to varying extents. Its findings illuminate why some ethnic groups are highly motivated to learn English and are able to gain privileged economic positions in the job market. In England, access to Chinese is marked by social class, and the book argues that this could augment an 'educational apartheid' that already exists in language teaching in secondary schools, thereby exacerbating existing inequality.
Research-Driven Pedagogy: Implications of L2A Theory and Research for the Teaching of Language Skills brings together the essentials of second language acquisition (SLA) theory, research, and second language (L2) pedagogy. Uniquely, the design of this book helps researchers and practitioners make explicit connections between theory, research, and practice; learn about and conduct classroom research to contribute to the relevance and applicability of SLA research; and improve current L2 curriculum and instruction in light of current theory and research. The volume offers critical reviews of the most relevant, current SLA theory and research about receptive, productive, complementary, and nonverbal communication skills, as well as willingness to communicate (WTC). Each chapter is formatted to include five major topics about each language skill: (1) major theories, (2) critical reviews of salient/current research, (3) commonly-used data collection and analysis techniques, (4) summary of specific pedagogical implications of pertinent research and theory, and (5) theory and research-driven scenarios/activities that can be used in teaching. A teacher or a researcher can pick any chapter in this volume to learn about the most important language skills (e.g., reading, writing, nonverbal communication), while having all-in-one place access to almost everything they would need.
Heritage languages, such as the Turkish varieties spoken in Berlin or the Spanish used in Los Angeles, are non-dominant languages, often with little prestige. Their speakers also speak the dominant language of the country they live in. Often heritage languages undergo changes due to their special status. They have received a lot of scholarly attention and provide a link between academic concerns and educational issues. This book takes a language contact perspective: we consider heritage languages from the perspective of their history, their structural properties, and their interaction with other surrounding languages.
A comprehensive theory of selective opacity effects--configurations in which syntactic domains are opaque to some processes but transparent to others--within a Minimalist framework. In this book, Stefan Keine investigates in detail "selective opacity"-- configurations in which syntactic domains are opaque to some processes but transparent to others--and develops a comprehensive theory of these syntactic configurations within a contemporary Minimalist framework. Although such configurations have traditionally been analyzed in terms of restrictions on possible sequences of movement steps, Keine finds that analogous restrictions govern long-distance dependencies that do not involve movement. He argues that the phenomenon is more widespread and abstract than previously assumed. He proposes a new approach to such effects, according to which probes that initiate the operation Agree are subject to "horizons," which terminate their searches. Selective opacity effects raise important questions about the nature of locality in natural language, the representation of movement-type asymmetries, correlations between clause structure and locality, and possible interactions between syntactic dependencies. With a focus on in-depth case studies of Hindi-Urdu and German, Keine offers detailed investigations of movement dependencies, long-distance agreement, wh-dependencies, the A/A' distinction, restructuring, freezing effects, successive cyclicity, and phase theory. Keine's account offers a thorough understanding of selective opacity and the systematic overarching generalizations to which it is subject.
The chapters in this volume, all written by experts in the field, present an array of new research on second language acquisition (SLA) that touches on several current theoretical debates in the field and present a rich range of new empirical data and a number of innovative findings. The studies address questions relating to ultimate attainment, first language transfer, universal properties of SLA, processing and second language (L2) grammar, and explore a number of grammatical features of the L2: tense, aspect, modality, specificity, definiteness, gender, number, anaphora. These themes are complemented by the study of pragmatic competence in sociocultural aspects of register use. The students investigated in the studies range from heritage speakers to naturalistic learners, to instructed learners and immigrants. Another distinctive feature of this book is the inclusion of pedagogical recommendations based on L2 research, making the book relevant for both SLA researchers and language teachers.
Fusing theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating, Becoming a Translator is the essential resource for novice and practicing translators. The book explains how the market works, helps translators learn how to translate faster and more accurately, as well as providing invaluable advice and tips about how to deal with potential problems, such as stress. The fourth edition has been revised and updated throughout, offering: a whole new chapter on multimedia translation, with a discussion of the move from "intersemiotic translation" to "audiovisual translation", "media access" and "accessibility studies" new sections on cognitive translation studies, translation technology, online translator communities, crowd-sourced translation, and online ethnography "tweetstorms" capturing the best advice from top industry professionals on Twitter student voices, especially from Greater China Including suggestions for discussion, activities, and hints for the teaching of translation, and drawing on detailed advice from top translation professionals, the fourth edition of Becoming a Translator remains invaluable for students and teachers of Translation Studies, as well as those working in the field of translation.
This book revisits second language (L2) writing teacher education by exploring the complex layers of L2 writing instruction in non-English dominant contexts (i.e. English as a foreign language contexts). It pushes the boundaries of teacher education by specifically examining the development of teacher literacy in writing in under-represented L2 writing contexts, and re-envisions L2 writing teacher education that is contextually and culturally situated, moving away from the uncritical embracement of Western-based writing pedagogies. It explores and expands on writing teacher education - how language teachers come to understand their own writing practices and instruction, and what their related experiences are in non-English dominant contexts across the globe.
Academic discourse is the gateway not only to educational success but to worlds of imagination, discovery and accumulated wisdom. Understanding the nature of academic discourse and developing ways of helping everyone access, shape and change this knowledge is critical to supporting social justice. Yet education research often ignores the forms taken by knowledge and the language through which they are expressed. This volume comprises cutting-edge work that is bringing together sociological and linguistic approaches to access academic discourse. Systemic functional linguistics (SFL) is a long-established and widely known approach to understanding language. Legitimation Code Theory (LCT) is a younger and rapidly growing approach to exploring and shaping knowledge practices. Now evermore research and practice are using these approaches together. This volume presents new advances from this inter-disciplinary dialogue, focusing on state-of-the-art work in SFL provoked by its productive dialogue with LCT. It showcases work by the leading lights of both approaches, including the foremost scholar of SFL and the creator of LCT. Chapters introduce key ideas from LCT, new conceptual developments in SFL, studies using both approaches, and guidelines for shaping curriculum and pedagogy to support access to academic discourse in classrooms. The book is essential reading for all appliable and educational linguists, as well as scholars and practitioners of education and sociology.
Statistics For Linguists
Statistics for Linguists: An Introduction Using R is the first statistics textbook on linear models for linguistics. The book covers simple uses of linear models through generalized models to more advanced approaches, maintaining its focus on conceptual issues and avoiding excessive mathematical details. It contains many applied examples using the R statistical programming environment. Written in an accessible tone and style, this text is the ideal main resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students of Linguistics statistics courses as well as those in other fields, including Psychology, Cognitive Science, and Data Science.
The concept of chronotopicity is increasingly used in sociolinguistic theorizing as a new way of looking at context and scale in studies of language, culture and identity. This volume brings together empirical work that puts flesh on the bones of this rather abstract chronotopical theorizing, especially focusing on the discursive construction of chronotopic identities. The case studies in this volume address chronotopic identity work in several sites (in Denmark, Indonesia, Mongolia, China, Belgium and The Netherlands). The book will be of interest to students and researchers in applied linguistics and sociolinguistics, as well as related fields such as anthropology, sociology and cultural studies.
Up to ninety percent of humanity's traditional languages and cultures are at risk and may disappear this century. While language endangerment has not achieved the publicity surrounding environmental change and biodiversity loss, it is just as serious, disastrously reducing the variety of human knowledge and thought. This book shows why it matters, why and how it happens, and what communities and scholars can do about it. David and Maya Bradley provide a new framework for investigating and documenting linguistic, social and other factors which contribute to languages shifting away from their cultural heritage. Illustrated with practical in-depth case studies and examples from the authors' own work in Asia and elsewhere, the book encourages communities to maintain or reclaim their traditional languages and cultures.
This highly accessible introductory textbook carefully explores the main issues that have driven the field of second language acquisition research. Intended for students with little or no background in linguistics or psycholinguistics, it explains important linguistic concepts, and how and why they are relevant to second language acquisition. Topics are presented via a 'key questions' structure that enables the reader to understand how these questions have motivated research in the field, and the problems to which researchers are seeking solutions. It provides a complete package for any introductory course on second language acquisition.
This book provides practical guidance on research methods and designs that can be applied to Complex Dynamic Systems Theory (CDST) research. It discusses the contribution of CDST to the field of applied linguistics, examines what this perspective entails for research and introduces practical methods and templates, both qualitative and quantitative, for how applied linguistics researchers can design and conduct research using the CDST framework. Introduced in the book are methods ranging from those in widespread use in social complexity, to more familiar methods in use throughout applied linguistics. All are inherently suited to studying both dynamic change in context and interconnectedness. This accessible introduction to CDST research will equip readers with the knowledge to ensure compatibility between empirical research designs and the theoretical tenets of complexity. It will be of value to researchers working in the areas of applied linguistics, language pedagogy and educational linguistics and to scholars and professionals with an interest in second/foreign language acquisition and complexity theory.
Task-based language teaching is an approach which differs from traditional approaches by emphasising the importance of engaging learners' natural abilities for acquiring language incidentally through the performance of tasks that draw learners' attention to form. Drawing on the multiple perspectives and expertise of five leading authorities in the field, this book provides a comprehensive and balanced account of task-based language teaching (TBLT). Split into five sections, the book provides an historical account of the development of TBLT and introduces the key issues facing the area. A number of different theoretical perspectives that have informed TBLT are presented, followed by a discussion on key pedagogic aspects - syllabus design, methodology of a task-based lesson, and task-based assessment. The final sections consider the research that has investigated the effectiveness of TBLT, addresses critiques and suggest directions for future research. Task-based language teaching is now mandated by many educational authorities throughout the world and this book serves as a core source of information for researchers, teachers and students.
Since its first publication in 1998, Mary Talbot's Language and Gender has been a leading textbook, popular with students for its accessibility and with teachers for the range and depth it achieves in a single volume. This anticipated third edition has been thoroughly revised and updated for the era of #MeToo, genderqueer, Trump, and cyberhate. The book is organized into three parts. An introductory section provides grounding in early 'classic' studies in the field. In the second section, Talbot examines language used by women and men in a variety of speech situations and genres. The last section considers the construction and performance of gender in discourse, reflecting the interest in mass media and popular culture found in recent research, as well as the preoccupation with social change that is central to Critical Discourse Analysis. Maintaining an emphasis on recent research, Talbot covers a range of approaches at an introductory level, lucidly presenting sometimes difficult and complex issues. Each chapter concludes with a list of recommended readings, enabling students to further their interests in various topics. Language and Gender will continue to be an essential textbook for undergraduates and postgraduates in linguistics, sociolinguistics, cultural and media studies, gender studies and communication studies.
This book explains why cognitive linguistics offers a plausible theoretical framework for a systematic and unified analysis of the syntax and semantics of particle verbs. It explores the meaning of the verb + particle syntax, the particle placement of transitive particle verbs, how particle placement is related to idiomaticity, and the relationship between idiomaticity and semantic extension. It also offers valuable linguistic implications for future studies on complex linguistic constructions using a cognitive linguistic approach, as well as insightful practical implications for the learning and teaching of English particle verbs.
Changing the Subject explores ways of engaging across difference. In this first book-length study of the concept of empathy from a rhetorical perspective, Lisa Blankenship frames the classical concept of pathos in new ways and makes a case for rhetorical empathy as a means of ethical rhetorical engagement. The book considers how empathy can be a deliberate, conscious choice to try to understand others through deep listening and how language and other symbol systems play a role in this process that is both cognitive and affective. Departing from agonistic win-or-lose rhetoric in the classical Greek tradition that has so strongly influenced Western thinking, Blankenship proposes that we ourselves are changed ("changing the subject" or the self) when we focus on trying to understand rather than simply changing an Other. This work is informed by her experiences growing up in the conservative South and now working as a professor in New York City, as well as the stories and examples of three people working across profound social, political, class, and gender differences: Jane Addams's activist work on behalf of immigrants and domestic workers in Gilded Age Chicago; the social media advocacy of Brazilian rap star and former maid Joyce Fernandes for domestic worker labor reform; and the online activist work of Justin Lee, a queer Christian who advocates for greater understanding and inclusion of LGBTQ+ people in conservative Christian churches. A much-needed book in the current political climate, Changing the Subject charts new theoretical ground and proposes ways of integrating principles of rhetorical empathy in our everyday lives to help fight the temptations of despair and disengagement. The book will appeal to students, scholars, and teachers of rhetoric and composition as well as people outside the academy in search of new ways of engaging across differences.
Applied Linguistics in the Real Worldintroduces readers to situations in which applied linguistics can be and is used. Presenting a panoramic view of the interdisciplinary area of applied linguistics and highlighting the diverse range of twenty-first century occupations that have linguistics at their center, this book: Describes, discusses, and furthers the idea that linguistic knowledge is useful everywhere--from forensic investigations to diplomatic talks; from disability studies to creative writing; and from translation studies to machine learning; Breaks new ground, expanding beyond well-established areas of applied-linguistic interest in its inclusion of disability studies, peace studies and the new literature; Provides readers with original research questions and practical applications for them to expand their own research portfolios. Written in an accessible, direct style, Applied Linguistics in the Real Worldwill be essential reading for all students of applied linguistics and is an important addition to the library of anyone who feels passionate and inspired by language matters. their own research portfolios. Written in an accessible, direct style, Applied Linguistics in the Real Worldwill be essential reading for all students of applied linguistics and is an important addition to the library of anyone who feels passionate and inspired by language matters.
Despite advancements in and availability of corpus software in language classrooms facilitating data-driven learning (DDL), the use of such methods with pre-tertiary learners remains rare. This book specifically explores the affordances of DDL for younger learners, testing its viability with teachers and students at the primary and secondary years of schooling. It features eminent and up-and-coming researchers from Europe, Asia, and Australasia who seek to address best practice in implementing DDL with younger learners, while providing a wealth of empirical findings and practical DDL activities ready for use in the pre-tertiary classroom. Divided into three parts, the volume's first section focuses on overcoming emerging challenges for DDL with younger learners, including where and how DDL can be integrated into pre-tertiary curricula, as well as potential barriers to this integration. It then considers new, cutting-edge innovations in corpora and corpus software for use with younger learners in the second section, before reporting on actual DDL studies performed with younger learners (and/or their teachers) at the primary and secondary levels of education. This book will appeal to post-graduate students, academics and researchers with interests in corpus linguistics, second language acquisition, primary and secondary literacy education, and language and educational technologies.
Now in its second edition, Language Curriculum Design describes the steps involved in the curriculum design process, elaborates and justifies these steps, and provides opportunities for practicing and applying them. Crystal-clear and comprehensive yet concise, the steps are laid out at a general level so that they can be applied in a wide range of particular circumstances. Updated throughout with cutting-edge research and theory, the second edition contains new examples on curriculum design and development and expanded attention on environment analysis, needs analysis, and program evaluation. The process comes to life through plentiful examples of actual applications from the authors' experience and from published research. Each chapter also includes tasks that encourage readers to relate the steps to their own experience, and case studies and suggestions for further reading. Combining sound research/theory with state-of-the-art practice, Language Curriculum Design is widely applicable for ESL/EFL language education courses around the world.
Translinguistics represents a powerful alternative to conventional paradigms of language such as bilingualism and code-switching, which assume the compartmentalization of different "languages" into fixed and arbitrary boundaries. Translinguistics more accurately reflects the fluid use of linguistic and semiotic resources in diverse communities. This ground-breaking volume showcases work from leading as well as emerging scholars in sociolinguistics and other language-oriented disciplines and collectively explores and aims to reconcile the distinction between "innovation" and "ordinariness" in translinguistics. Features of this book include: 18 chapters from 28 scholars, representing a range of academic disciplines and institutions from 11 countries around the world; research on understudied communities and geographic contexts including those of Latin America, South Asia, and Central Asia; several chapters devoted to the diversity of communication in digital contexts. Edited by two of the most innovative scholars in the field, Translinguistics: Negotiating Innovation and Ordinariness is essential reading for scholars and students interested in the question of multilingualism across a variety of subject areas.
In Punctuations Michael J. Shapiro examines how punctuation--conceived not as a series of marks but as a metaphor for the ways in which artists engage with intelligibility--opens pathways for thinking through the possibilities for oppositional politics. Drawing on Theodor Adorno, Alain Robbe-Grillet, and Roland Barthes, Shapiro demonstrates how punctuation's capacity to create unexpected rhythmic pacing makes it an ideal tool for writers, musicians, filmmakers, and artists to challenge structures of power. In works ranging from film scores and jazz compositions to literature, architecture, and photography, Shapiro shows how the use of punctuation reveals the contestability of dominant narratives in ways that prompt readers, viewers, and listeners to reflect on their acceptance of those narratives. Such uses of punctuation, he theorizes, offer models for disrupting structures of authority, thereby fostering the creation of alternative communities of sense from which to base political mobilization.